Goals from Alexis Sanchez and Aaron Ramsey sent the Gunners celebrating at Wembley, with the Welshman hitting what proved to be the winner minutes after Diego Costa briefly restored parity.
And the victory brings up a very special record for Wenger, who is now out on his own as the best the world's oldest club competition has ever seen.
The Frenchman has now won seven FA Cup titles, more than any other manager in the title's 143 years of existence.
7 - Arsene Wenger has won the FA Cup seven times, more than any other manager in history. Legend. pic.twitter.com/K57voREmzD— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) 27 de mayo de 2017
His first success in the competition came in 1997-98, completing the double in his second season in England.
Further wins followed in 2001-02, 2002-03, 2004-05, 2013-14 and 2014-15, with the latest triumph bringing him to a total of 10 major trophies with the Gunners.
With 13 FA Cup wins in total, meanwhile, Arsenal are also the most successful club, pulling away from former joint-leaders Manchester United, who boast 12.
The title comes at a critical time for Wenger, with opposition to his 20-year reign in north London stronger than ever.
But despite missing out on Champions League football, the manager has at least added another trophy to Arsenal's collection to end a difficult season on a high.