The 21-year-old's maiden call-up comes as Wesley Sneijder prepares to bid farewell to the Oranje.
De Jong has been touted as a future star for Netherlands due to his impressive performances at Ajax, drawing interest from Barcelona this summer.
Goalkeeper Jasper Cillessen is in the squad despite picking up an intercostal muscle injury in club training, although Ronald Koeman has options in the shape of Jeroen Zoet and uncapped pair Marco Bizot and Sergio Padt.
Following the Peru encounter on September 6, Netherlands visit World Cup winners France three days later in a difficult start to their UEFA Nations League campaign.
Netherlands' provisional squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Marco Bizot, Jasper Cillessen, Sergio Padt, Jeroen Zoet
Defenders: Patrick van Aanholt, Nathan Aké, Daley Blind, Virgil van Dijk, Timothy Fosu-Mensah, Hans Hateboer, Daryl Janmaat, Terence Kongolo, Matthijs de Ligt, Kenny Tete, Stefan de Vrij
Midfielders: Donny van de Beek, Frenkie de Jong, Davy Pröpper, Marten de Roon, Wesley Sneijder, Kevin Strootman, Guus Til, Tonny Vilhena, Ruud Vormer, Georginio Wijnaldum
Attackers: Ryan Babel, Steven Berghuis, Steven Bergwijn, Memphis Depay, Eljero Elia, Luuk de Jong, Justin Kluivert, Quincy Promes, Wout Weghorst